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References of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) displacement/subluxation

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Here I have collected references about what SIJ is according to specialists. Some specialists tell something, some tell allmost everything. Most of them tell different things, this is a difficult subject.

But they all agree on one thing: IT IS VERY COMMON PROBLEM affecting millions of patients!

My opinion about this disorder
Other reference stuff

SIJ/ILIUM UPSLIP

There are hundreds of references about SIJD/SIJS. Here are the best of them starting from ILIUM UPSLIP

"Eight of ten people in the world will have low back pain at one time or another and I firmly believe that most of it is SIJD." Richard DonTigny, member of Advisory board, World Congress on Low Back Pain and the Pelvis

Symptoms of an Upslip by Richard DonTigny, PT
"I have seen SIJD in children as young as 8 while doing scoliosis training. I remember one young boy who had a leg length difference, (long leg right) and a lumbar scoliosis. I did a simple corrective mobilization on that side, the leg length shortened, the pelvic obliquity was corrected and the lumbar scoliosis disappeared all within about ten minutes."

Mechanics and treatment of sacroiliac joint, by Richard DonTigny
This document explains a lot what is SIJD.

Symptoms of an Upslip by Tom LeBlanc, PT
Do you feel as if you are walking on uneven ground, even though you know the floor is level? Does it hurt to sit too long? Do you sometimes misjudge distance, while walking through an open door, and bang your shoulder into the door jamb? Do you feel off balance and frequently have to catch yourself to keep from falling? Have you noticed yourself “running out of steam” much earlier in the day since having an accident or a fall? If you answered yes to any of these questions, you may be suffering from an upslip.
What is an Upslip?
An upslip, or superior ilium, is a condition where one ilium (pelvis bone) is slightly higher than the ilium on the opposite side.

Pain Localization with the Innominate Upslip Dysfunction by Robert F. Kidd, MD, Manual Medicine 1988, Volume 3: pp. 103-5
"With treatment, correction of the upslip was associated with an improvement or disappearance of pain. In those with upslips, pain was often felt in more than one area and at levels of the body remote from the sacroiliac joint. Also, the association of the upslips with the side of the body in which the pain was felt was essentially random."

Anterior Dysfunction of the Sacroiliac Joint as a Major Factor in the Etiology of Idiopathic Low Back Pain Syndrome by Richard L DonTigny, Physical TherapyNolume 70, Number 4/April 1990
"I believe that the influence of the action of the SIJs on ILBPS, disk disease, idiopathic arthritis of the hip, scoliosis, spondylolisthesis, and the biomechanics of lifting mechanisms has been generally overlooked or ignored in the literature."

SPORTS!
Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction in Athletes by P. Gunnar Brolinson, DO, FAOASM, FAAFP*, Albert I. Kozar, DO, and Greg Cibor, DO
"Because of the unique nature of sport and the tremendous demands that most sporting activities place on the spine and pelvis, SIJD is well recognized by athletes and athletic medical practitioners. In fact, some authors describe SI dysfunction as a common problem in elite athletes, but a clinical entity that has been largely unstudied in the medical literature. One study evaluating members of the United States Senior National Rowing Team indicated a prevalence of SI dysfunction in 54.1% of team members, and more common in sweep rowers (66%) than scullers (34%)."

Anatomical and Biochemical considerations related to assessment of Pelvic Dysfunction by Barbara Hungerford, Director, Advanced Manual Therapy Associates
"A chronic upslip will often present with tightness in quadratus lumborum, psoas major, and sacrotuberous ligament."

ChiroWeb by Marc Heller, DC
Upslips and Downslips: Ilio-Sacral Shears
"I want to introduce to you an IS pattern with which most of you probably are unfamiliar. The ilium can shear vertically on the sacrum; this is called an upslip or downslip. When this occurs is critical, because shears are nonphysiological patterns, rather than rotations within the joint's normal planes of motion. In this shear, the ilium has ridden superior or inferior on the sacrum, losing its normal relationship. Once you know how to assess for IS shears, they become obvious, and relatively easy to correct."

Health & Posture by Brent Stevenson, Physiotherapist (aka Physical Therapist) in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
"Symmetry in your pelvis is very important to prevent pain problems and allow all your muscles to work as effeciently as possible. Your pelvis has many muscles that attach to it and it takes a lot of punishment from our work, sports and accidents. Subtle asymmetries can create lasting painful problems. Common assymetries are an upslip and/or a torsion. This is where one half of the pelvis shifts up or rotates forward or backward relative to the other side. It can happen in varying degrees, from a subtle muscle imbalance to a severe accident ramming one bone out of place."

Spinal Manual Therapy: An Introduction to Soft Tissue Mobilization, Spinal Manipulation, Therapeutic and Home Exercise (Paperback) by Howard W. Makofsky (Author)
On page 191: "Because the iliac upslip requires additional force to correct, a manual thrust rather than MET will he described subsequently."

Boyd Healthworks? by Jan Boyd, B.Sc. (PT)
"Malalignment of the pelvis and spine affects 80-90% of adults and is one of the major causes of pelvic, back and leg pain."

Sacroiliac Sprain by Knutson Gary A, Journal of the American Chiropractic Association, Aug 2004
"Without correction of the partial dislocation, the SIJ sprain will likely become chronic, and subject the lumbar spine and leg to loads and biomechanical distortions that could lead to further injury and pain. "

Sports!
Sports Medicine & Rehabilitation by Taras V. Kochno, M.D
"With enough force to the pelvis, the ileum bone will shift or sublux against the sacrum, leading to pain and secondary gluteal muscle tightness. The consequences of a subluxed sacral-iliac may lead to secondary muscle strains in addition to the gluteals and commonly involve the erectors of the lumbar spine, multifidus, piriformis and hamstring muscles. - If there is shortening of a leg length, that may indicate that there is pelvic asymmetry. Most athletes will experience a functional leg length discrepancy rather than a true leg length discrepancy, which is based on anatomical length differences."

SPORT!
Malalignment Syndrome by Wolf Schamberger, M.D
"The Malalignment Syndrome describes a recently defined syndrome that is present in many people and which can affect everyday activities and may result in injury. It is now recognised that the malalignment syndrome is frequently a predisposing factor in sports injuries. It may also underlie biomechanical problems in less active members of the population."

Moffett Physical Therapy: Sacroiliac dysfunction by Cheryl A. Moffett, M.P.T.
"Sacroiliac dysfunction is a malalignment of the sacroiliac joint (SI joint). The SI joint is located where the bottom of the spine connects with the pelvis. This condition can cause low back and pelvic region discomfort, and it is often a missed diagnosis."

Sports
Sacroiliac Joint Injury by Andrew L Sherman, MD, Associate Professor, Departments of Neurological Surgery, Orthopedics, and Rehabilitation, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
"studies have documented that motion does occur at the joint; therefore, slightly subluxed and even locked positions can occur."
Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction by Dr. Richard M. Bachrach
"Alternatively, the unstable sacroiliac joints may become locked in an abnormal alignment, maintained that way by resultant muscle spasm producing pain."

Spine and sacroiliac specialists by Dr. Amaral
"Sacroiliac pain is due to subluxation of the joint."
"The two sides are compared for symmetry with the painful side considered the abnormal one." - DON'T DO IT LIKE THIS!

The Stretching Institute by Brad Walker, leading stretching and sports injury consultant
"Pain in the sacroiliac joint may be a result of a subluxation of the joint. This is a partial dislocation. The bones are slightly displaced, which stresses the ligaments that hold it together. It also puts pressure on the surrounding structures."

The effect of sacroiliac dysfunction on the musculoskeletal system by Alan B. Lippitt, MD
"Sacroiliac dysfunction is finally being recognized as a leading cause of chronic back pain that us not easily explained by conventional means. Many patients with this condition have spent years in pain. Their symptoms all too often ascribed to psychiatric, economic or idiopathic etiologies."

Healing Research Center by Dr. Gerald Poesnecker
"The most common subluxation occurs when one ilium moves upward or downward. If the situation remains for more than a few days, the ilium on the other side will usually move in the opposite direction because of the instability produced by the first subluxation. The situation in which both ilia move either upward or downward is uncommon, although it does occur and can often make diagnosis very difficult unless the physician is aware of its possibility."

Healing Center by Dr. Gerald Poesnecker
"The most common mechanical problem of children is the same as that of their elders-subluxation of the pelvis, or sacroiliac "twist". "

The sacroiliac joint: a critical review by American Physical Therapy Association
"Most manual therapists, however, be they physical therapists, chiropractors, or osteopaths, appear to believe that appreciable motion exists in the SIJ, that careful clinical testing can isolate SIJ dysfunction, and that specific treatment procedures can affect SIJ dysfunction. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction is variously termed subluxation, "upslip," "downslip," or posterior or, more frequently, anterior fixed innominate."
"It is plausible that slight shifting of one articular surface in relation to the other may minimally disturb the alignment of the interlocking surfaces. This may constitute SIJ dysfunction and may respond to manual therapy procedures."

Physical Therapy for the Rider by Wayne E. Rasmussen, MS, PT, ATC
"The pelvic ring dysfunction presented two alignment changes. The left side of Nichole's pelvis was rotated posterior and elevated. The elevation is called an 'Up Slip', where one seat bone was higher than the other."

www.kalindra.com by Richard DonTigny, PT, Advisory board, World Congress on Low Back Pain and the Pelvis (1992-2002)
"Because of the variation of the angles of the front part of the SIJ and the back part of the SIJ, after the back part of the SIJ gets stuck, the front part of the SIJ can still move up or down. When the front part of the SIJ moves up, the leg on that side gets shorter and it looks like a posterior rotation or an upslip, but this can only happen after it rotates anteriorly. Many therapists or chiros will try to correct a 'posterior dysfunction'"
"When the innominate rotates anteriorly on the sacrum, when it goes 'out', it subluxates (partially dislocates) by moving up and out on the S3 segment so I refer to it as an S3 subluxation. Because of the unique variance in the angulations of the joint surfaces, when the S3 segment subluxates, the S1 segment is opened slightly. The thing that has been overlooked by essentially all practitioners is that once the S3 subluxation occurs, the innominate may move up or down at the S1 segment giving the appearance of many different kinds of dysfunction."

Malalignment syndrome by Wolf Schamberger, M.D
"Vertebral malrotation, malalignment of the pelvis because of rotation or upslip, and sacral torsion can occur in isolation or in various combinations with each other."

Asymmetry in lumbar lateral flexion and axial rotation effectively distinguishes between healthy individuals and patients with unilateral mechanical LBP by Einas Al-Eisa et. all.
"Asymmetry in lumbar movement is highly associated with pelvic asymmetry in both asymptomatic and LBP populations."

Spine and sacroiliac specialists by Dr. Amaral
"The ilium can be rotated anteriorly or posteriorly. There can be an upslip (the most frequent) or downslip. Often, the sacrum is also rotated, placing strain on the facets (the joints of the spine). Those subluxations can be determined by clinical examination and reduced with various manipulations and exercises."
Same text in SIDysfunction.com

Sports Medicine by Irwin Abraham, MD
"Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction is the most common cause (80%) of low back pain. The hipbone meets the lower end of the spine, called the sacrum, where they form a joint. The hip can rotate forward at this joint and can get very painfully "stuck" in an abnormal position."

OAE Orthopaedics Review, Volume 1, Issue 2 by Therese Southworth, PT
"Researchers theorize that pain associated with the SI is the result of the bone on one side of the joint sliding out of position, thereby forcing the muscles and ligaments that keep the bones aligned to overcompensate, which in turn causes pain. The longer a malalignment exists, the more likely muscles are to spasm and tissue damage to occur. In some cases, the pain associated with malalignment can travel beyond the area of the SI joint into the lower back or leg."

Ideal Spine Center by Tedd Koren, D.C
"Primary SI dysfunction arises from trauma such as blows, falls on the buttock, or from attempts to save oneself from falling. Knocking the SI joints out of place can affect the structural integrity of the entire spine. The SI joints themselves are held in place by small ligaments, which can be stretched out of position if there is a traumatic dislocation."

Ideal Spine Center by Kim D. Christensen, DC, DACRB, CCSP
"Much more common in the pelvis is a biomechanical source of pelvic unleveling, with sacroiliac joint subluxations. This condition can be caused by work postures, recreational habits, or just a broken-down chair at home. Muscle imbalances are frequently part of this syndrome, with weakness of the hip extensor muscles being most common. Tightness of a psoas muscle, or shortening of the hamstrings from excessive sitting can also contribute to pelvic unleveling. An "antalgic" posture in response to acute pain and inflammation of the lower spinal joints often results in a difference in height of the iliac crests."

Rehab and the Sacroiliac Joint by Kim D. Christensen, DC, DACRB, CCSP
"SI subluxation is a legitimate syndrome, separate from the type of low back pain associated with disc conditions, lumbago, or sciatica. 1-6 In fact, SI joint dysfunction has been implicated as a common cause of back pain in more than 30% of children. 3 Additionally, a study involving the correction of SI joint dysfunction in patients presenting to a chiropractic center over one day found an incidence of 57% for SI joint dysfunction. 7"
1. DonTigney RL. A review. Physical Therapy 1985; 65(1):35-44.
2. Cox HH. Sacro-iliac subluxation as a cause of backache. Surg, Gynec & Obstet 1927; 45:637-648.
3. Mierau DR et al. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction and low back pain in school aged children. JMPT 1984; 7(2):81-84.
4. Jessen AR. The sacroiliac subluxation. ACA J of Chiro 1973; 7(s):65-72.
5. Cyriax E. Minor displacements of the sacro-iliac joints. Br J Phys Med 1934; 9:191-193.
6. Freiberg AH, Vinke TH. Sciatica and the sacro-iliac joint. J Bone & Foot Surg 1934; 16:126-136.
7. Gemmell HA, Heng BJ. Low force method of spinal correction and fixation of the sacroiliac joint. The Amer Chiro 1987; Nov:28-32.

Sports!
USA Volleyball Players by Ronda Wimmer, PhD, MS, LAc, ATC, CSCS, CSMS, SPS
"For example, a player is right arm-/left leg-dominant. The compensation pattern will show up with sacroiliac joint subluxation with pain on the dominant side. However, if the hip flexors are tight on the opposite side, then the compensation will pull to the nondominant side, due to a pelvic tilt and/or rotation. This dramatically affects the efficiency in athletic performance, even with just a little compensation. So, the key becomes to identify compensation patterns as quickly as possible and counterbalance them."

Sports!
15th FICS International Chiropractic Sports Symposium November 19, 2001
"Pelvic dysfunction can affect all athletes, from recreational to elite athletes, and in all age groups. It is involved in common conditions such as incontinence, osteitis pubis and stress fractures. It is also linked with acute and chronic low back pain."

Sports!
Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction in Athletes by P. Gunnar Brolinson, DO, FAOASM, FAAFP*, Albert I. Kozar, DO, and Greg Cibor, DO
"Next, determine if there is any leg length discrepancy. One should realize that true leg length discrepancies will generally cause asymmetry and pain, whereas a functional leg length discrepancy is usually the result of SI joint and/or pelvic dysfunction. Assess posture for increased lumbar lordosis, which can result from sacral torsions."

Sports!
Sports Medicine & Rehabilitation by Doctor Taras V. Kochno MD
"Subluxations for the sacroiliac junctions are best done by chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, and once the manipulation is successful, functional range of motion of the gluteal and lumbar muscles can be restored quickly through various myofascial release techniques."

In a pilot study, 16 women with interstitial cystitis (IC) by Dr. James Lukban
"In a pilot study, 16 women with interstitial cystitis (IC) were diagnosed with and treated for sacroiliac dysfunction, resulting in a significant improvement in bladder symptoms, Dr. James Lukban said at the annual meeting of the American Urogynecologic Society.
We know that a malalignment of the sacrum and ilium can cause pelvic muscle spasm, such that the normal shape of the pelvis can be distorted. We speculated that restoring the normal tension to these muscles might take away some of the pain and urinary symptoms of their IC," said Dr. Lukban, director of urodynamics at the Pelvic Floor Center, Graduate Hospital, Philadelphia.
They also were evaluated for sacroiliac dysfunction by a manual physical therapist. This included a structural assessment of pelvic alignment in the sitting, standing, supine and prone positions; an evaluation of the heights of the iliac crests, the posterior and anterior superior iliac spine, pubic tubercles, ischial tuberosities, and inferior lateral angles of the sacrum; Manual therapy included direct myofascial release, joint mobilization, muscle energy techniques, strengthening, stretching, neuromuscular reeducation, and instruction in an extensive home exercise program, Dr. Lukban said. The treatment resulted in a 94% improvement in irritative voiding symptoms. There was also a 94% improvement in dyspareunia, with 9 of the 16 patients being able to return to completely pain-free intercourse."

Sports!
Osteitis pubis in athletes. Infection, inflammation or injury? byFricker PA, Taunton JE and Ammann W (1991) Sports Med. 12 (4): 266-79. Summary: Medical records of 59 patients (9 females and 50 males)
"Evidence of pelvic malalignment and/or sacroiliac dysfunction was frequently seen in both men and women."

Pelvic stress injuries: the relationship between osteitis pubis (symphysis pubis stress injury) and sacroiliac abnormalities in athletes by Major NM and Helms CA (1997). Skeletal Radiol. 26 (12): 711-7.
"We have found a group of athletes in whom stress injuries to the pubic symphysis are associated with changes in the sacroiliac joint"

Sacroiliac Joint Displacement by Dr Andrew Tresidder, MB, BS, MRCGP
"Piedallu test showed that the contralateral (left) sacroiliac joint was displaced, confirmed by piston test, despite the fact that the symptoms were on the right. The left joint was replaced, with immediate relief of the chronic constant nagging toothache in the right buttock."

Sacroiliac subluxation: a common, treatable cause of low-back pain in pregnancy by Daly JM, Frame PS, Rapoza PA., Fam Pract Res J. 1991 Jun;11(2):149-59.
"a positive Piedallu's sign (asymmetrical movement of the posterior superior iliac spines upon forward flexion), After manipulative therapy, 10 of the 11 women (91%) had relief of pain and no longer exhibited signs of sacroiliac subluxation."

SACROILIAC SUBLUXATION - Chiro.org by R. C. Schafer, DC, PhD, FICC
"Piedallu's Sign. When a sacral base is subluxated unilaterally anteroinferior and lateral so that the adjacent ilium is subluxated posteroinferiorly and medially, the ipsilateral PSIS on the side of inferiority will be low in the standing and sitting positions. If this PSIS becomes higher than the contralateral PSIS during forward flexion, the phenomenon is called a positive Piedallu's sign. Such a sign signifies either ipsilateral sacroiliac locking where the sacrum and ilium move as a whole or muscle contraction preventing motion of the sacrum on the ilium. Regardless, it shows that sacral dysfunction is present."

Physical Therapy for the Rider by Wayne E. Rasmussen, MS, PT, ATC
"The pelvic ring dysfunction presented two alignment changes. The left side of Nichole's pelvis was rotated posterior and elevated. The elevation is called an 'Up Slip', where one seat bone was higher than the other."

Sacroiliac Joints by Randall Kertz, DC
"The sacroiliac joints are where your hipbones join your low back at your pelvis. These joints may commonly become strained and lock out of alignment, causing strain to the many muscles which attach to the pelvis and forcing them to tighten up, this affecting your low back or lower extremities, sometimes causing a condition known as sciatica, commonly presenting as a discomfort that travels from your low back down into your buttocks, legs, and occasionally past your knees and into your feet. Other times the sacroiliac may cause a sharp pain in either hip."

HEALING WITH CHIROPRACTIC THERAPY by Gloria Dodd, D.V.M.
"The most frequent misaligned vertebra is the first neck bone, the atlas. In dogs this is pulled out of place by misuse of collars and leashes. Pulling from a collar can easily pull this neck bone out of alignment either by jerking on the leash to one side or another, or by the dog suddenly lurching laterally against the collar. It is far better to attach a leash to a harness than a collar. Since every vertebrae is attached to one another, a cascading affect occurs of rotating any or several other vertebrae and the sacroiliac out of alignment."

AAACHING BACK CENTER by Dr. Bollinger, knowledgeable of the latest in chiropractic and rehab techniques
"Subluxations (Misalignments) are the most common factor involved in sciatica. When a bone in the lower back or sacroiliac joint is wedged or rotated out of place it can irritate or compress a nerve."

sports?
Adjunctive Therapies to the Adjustment Pelvic Unleveling by Kim Christensen, DC, DACRB, CCSP, CSCS
"Much more common in the pelvis is a biomechanical source of pelvic unleveling, with sacroiliac joint subluxations. This condition can be caused by work postures, recreational habits, or just a broken-down chair at home. Muscle imbalances are frequently part of this syndrome, with weakness of the hip extensor muscles being most common. Tightness of a psoas muscle, or shortening of the hamstrings from excessive sitting can also contribute to pelvic unleveling."

Improving Sacroiliac Joint Function by Kim Christensen, DC, DACRB, CCSP, CSCS, Dynamic Chiropractic, November 3, 2003, Volume 21, Issue 23
"Primary SI dysfunction arises from acute trauma, such as a blows, a fall on the buttock, or an attempt to save oneself from falling. Knocking the SI joints out of place can affect the structural integrity of the entire spine. The SI joints themselves are held in place by small ligaments that can be stretched out of position if there is a traumatic dislocation. The whole pelvic girdle can be tilted to one side in the aftermath of a traumatic injury."

Tackling Four Sources of Back Pain, Part 1 by Robert Gibson
"The causes of sacroiliac "slip" are various; a blow to the heel, uneven weight bearing on the pelvis, dental problems and childbirth are the most frequent. Clinical experience and studies suggest that 50 to 70 percent of sciatica and low back pain are associated with sacroiliac slip."

Sports! Great!
favoriteRUN Posted by Alison on August 15th, 2007
"It could also be something as simple as a foot that’s not moving properly, a hip that is tight or a pelvis that is out of place due to a problem with the sacroiliac joint."
"For example, in a properly aligned body, the kneecap should track evenly over the foot in a straight line pointing in the direction you are traveling. If something - such as a misaligned hip - causes your knee to track in another direction, your knee will eventually be injured, and you won't even think about it until enough damage has been done for the knee to send pain signals to your brain. To make matters worse, if you, your doctor or your physio-therapist don't figure out the root cause of the injury, the knee will be treated and you'll go back to running as soon as it feels better. Then, guess what? The knee will be injured again."

Chiropractic and Pregnancy by Brian Feilteau, DC
"When the sacroiliac joint (located where the tail bone and hip join together) is out of place, it can cause low back, hip and leg pain, but it can also effect the position of the inutero baby. Some of the nerves from the sacroiliac joint go to the uterus. The aggravation of this nerve will cause the uterus to go into spasm, thus changing its shape, and preventing the baby from being in the optimal head down position."

prevent and cure sacroiliac pain by Judith H. Lasater, yoga
"If your S-I joint is out of place, the transition from sitting to standing can be uncomfortable, especially at the halfway up point. The first part of standing up and the last few inches may feel fine; it is that mid-range of the process of standing up which will be difficult."

Sacroiliac (SI) Joint Pain by AAACHING BACK CENTER
"The sacroiliac joints form the connection between the spine and the pelvis. The sacrum is the foundation of the spine, and if the Sacroiliac joint is rotated or tilted out of place, the back also becomes less stable. This can lead to pain higher up in the back due to compensation."

a patient
"I suppose I should be glad that it has been so many months since I've been to the chiropractor. Back in the 1980's while ski-ing I knocked my sacroiliac joint out of place. I had several years of pain before discovering an osteopath who was also a GP."

A WALK IN ONE PATIENT'S SHOES by Laurie M. Miller, The New Physician, November 2005
"I was diagnosed with spondylolysis, a displaced sacroiliac joint and chondromalacia of both kneecaps."

http://peakbagger.tripod.com/myback.htm
"Note: Many or even most family physicians and General Practitioners are totally ignorant of prolotherapy, or that SI joints can slip out of place but don't fault them;"

Sacroiliac dysfunction is pain in behind... Submitted by admin on Mon, 2007-04-30 07:28.
"These types of events can cause your sacroiliac joint to rotate or slip out of place. Trauma to this area can overstretch the ligaments that hold the joint, allowing it to rotate or shift into a painful position."

Independence Back Institute
"Once these bones have gone back into place, the job is not done. Efforts must follow that keep the joint where it belongs. A very specific home exercise program is prescribed for the individual and the goal is to stabilize the joint so it does not slip out of position again."

Sport!
Personal Journey -- For the Love of Running by Phil Bevins, running coach
"From the start, Bevins suspected that I had a partial dislocation in my left sacroiliac joint, which connects the tailbone to the pelvic bone. That and scoliosis were both to blame for a short left leg; to compensate, my spine leaned to the right. This misalignment stretched the ligaments around the hip joint, causing inflammation and pain, and the curvature in my spine compressed the joints along the right side of my body. "When that happens for a day, it's no big deal," says Bevins. "But over a lifetime, it causes arthritic changes." "

ABC Physical Therapy
"During my 11 years working as a physical therapist, I have found that the sacroiliac joint is involved or "out of alignment" in nearly every patient that has been referred or presented to me with the complaint of low back pain. "

Sports!
New York Times Wednesday, October 17, 2007
"In running his startling world record at Atlanta, Johnson injured his left hamstring muscle. Against Bailey in 1997, he injured the thigh muscle in his left leg. It was later determined that the sacroiliac joint in his pelvis was slightly rotated, which threw out of alignment the muscles in his left leg, making them less efficient. "

Sports!
Sports illustrated
"The first two rounds of the 200 exacted a price. Johnson's left Achilles tendon was aching. The tendon behind his left knee, already sore coming into the Games, was worse, and he needed repeated adjustment of his sacroiliac joint. "

Sports!
Sports illustrated
"He says his problems began not in Toronto but in Atlanta. In the 200 that cemented his place in history, Johnson says, he strained his sacroiliac as the result of the immense torque applied to his torso as he blazed through the turn"

Hamstring Injuries Resulting from Sacroiliac Dysfunction by Joseph Kurnik, DC. Dynamic Chiropractic April 3, 2000, Volume 18, Issue 08

YouTube-video by Vicki Sims, PT, CHT
"Usually when SIJ is out of correct position..."

Sports!
A Review of the Literature by Sean M. Hannon, BA, DC
Rehabilitation prescribed in coordination with prior chiropractic therapy as a treatment for sacroiliac subluxation in female distance runners. Grimston, S.K., Engsberg J.R., Shaw L, Vetane N.W. Chiropractic Sports Medicine, 1990;4: 2-9.
This is the story of a Canadian research team that included chiropractic care in the rehabilitation program of 16 injured female long distance runners. The runners recovered quickly and seven of them scored personal best performances under chiropractic care.
"Sixteen female distance runners presenting with sacroiliac subluxation were assessed by Grimston et al.63 Subjects underwent 12 sessions of chiropractic adjustment (in conjunction with muscular rehabilitation) over a 4-week period. Compared to four control subjects, a statistically significant decrease in lumbo-pelvic asymmetry was observed. Following care, all 12 subjects with sacroiliac subluxation had reinstated their preinjury training mileage. Five of twelve subjects (» 40%) reported their personal best performance over the 10-kilometer distance run. Two subjects achieved personal best times over the marathon distance (42-kilometer). All (100%) subjects reported enhanced awareness of posture and flexibility in addition to reduced symptoms."

Sports!
Sports Medicine & Rehabilitation by TARAS V. KOCHNO MD, Athletic Assessment
"Assessing subluxations of the sacroiliac junctions can be made by having the athlete lie supine with his legs extended. Visual inspection should assess for symmetry of the feet as well as functional leg length. If there is shortening of a leg length, that may indicate that there is pelvic asymmetry. Most athletes will experience a functional leg length discrepancy rather than a true leg length discrepancy, which is based on anatomical length differences."

Hamstring Injury in a Hockey Player by John Danchik, D.C
"Chiropractic evaluation. Motion palpation identifies a mild limitation in right sacroiliac motion, with moderate tenderness and loss of end range mobility."

Decrease in quadriceps inhibition after sacroiliac joint manipulation in patients with anterior knee pain. by Suter E, McMorland G, Herzog W, Bray R., J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1999 Mar-Apr;22(3):149-53.
"Spinal manipulation might offer an interesting alternative treatment for patients with anterior knee pain and muscle inhibition."

Hamstring muscle strain treated by mobilizing the sacroiliac joint by Cibulka MT, Rose SJ, Delitto A, Sinacore DR.
"The results of this study suggest a relationship between sacroiliac joint dysfunction and hamstring muscle strain."

Anatomical and Biochemical considerations related to assessment of Pelvic Dysfunction by
"Increased tension on the hamstrings may also occur as a direct result of pelvic injury e.g. when the innominate is forced into an upslip or anteriorly rotated position. A chronic upslip will often present with tightness in quadratus lumborum, psoas major, and sacrotuberous ligament. "

Sports!
WHO CARES ABOUT PELVIC ALIGNMENT? by Dr. Sue Ironside, ULTRA FITNESS
"The sacrum and the ilium form the sacroiliac joint. If this joint is stuck or misaligned, it will not be able to move in its normal pattern. This will create pull on the muscles that act around it. Some muscles will compensate by becoming overactive. For example the piriformis will start to contract or be overworked trying to help the joint. This will be felt as a pain in the hip or butt. The piriformis muscle is not alone in compensating for lack of movement of the sacroiliac joint. Any of the muscles that attach through the pelvis can be affected:
The hamstrings may become chronically tight
The adductors may get strained
The hip flexors may become chronically tight
The low back may become tight and sore.
The problems will also continue down the biomechanical chain: if the glute medius can't function properly because the pelvis is misaligned, it will not be able to stabilize the hip. When heel strike occurs, the knee will now rotate excessively because the hip is unstable leading to medial knee pain. "

Sports!
Power Athletes magazine by John Iams & Steve Cotter
"But in terms of the patterns that I see, more commonly than not, in most athletes, there is an awful lot of problems in their pelvis, particularly their sacroiliac joint, because many of these athletes are jarred, many times by falling. Many sports of course involve the athlete being off their feet, coming down, and landing on their pelvis. So, many of them have restricted motion in their SI joint. Many of them have injuries to their diaphragm, literally where their breath gets knocked out of them, they're sometimes unconscious for a matter of a few seconds, and there is a diaphragm injury associated with that."

Sports!
Pain in the Butt - What Is the Cause? by Neil McLaughlin & Ron Kulik
"For the Washington Running ReportThe sacroiliac (or SI) joints are very important joints in the hip and gluteal region for runners. There is one on each side of the body where the lower back meets the hips (see illustration). Smooth movement of both joints is required for efficient running biomechanics and functioning of muscles around the gluteal and hip region. If a restriction (or subluxation) of the SI joint occurs, pain may result from both the irritated joint itself and from surrounding muscles that may be overworked due to the resulting loss of movement. Trigger points and strains can often develop secondary to a sacroiliac problem. SI problems have also been associated with leg length deficiencies (a short leg), which can lead to other injuries."

SACROILIAC JOINT SYNDROME by Dr. Lee Miller
"Treatment of choice involves specific manipulation of the joint fixation to allow normal mobility and to the restore proper biomechanical and neurological function to the area."

Sports!
Overuse injuries curb triathlon preparation efforts by Troy M. Smurawa, MD
"Sacroiliac joint dysfunction. The SI joint connects the back to the hips, making it a major joint in the body. A muscle or structural imbalance there can lead to irritation, termed SI joint dysfunction. This is a common cause of low back pain in triathletes. It was noted to be one of the three most common injuries to competitors in Hawaii's Ironman Triathlon."

Sports!
Biomechanics of running: From faulty movement patterns come injuries by Sports Injury Bulletin
"An excessive or uncontrolled pelvic tilt increases the forces through the lumbar and sacroiliac joints, and forces the knee of the stance leg to internally rotate, which in turn may increase the pronation forces on the ankle. It is possible to observe a correlation between excessive pronation and excessive pelvic tilting in runners, and it is a good illustration of how one unstable link in the biomechanical chain can have an adverse knock-on effect and increase the risk of injury."

Sports!
Get rid of Stubborn Hamstring Injuries! by Athletes Acceleration
"Biomechanical issues are a huge reason for hamstring problems. Athletes that seem to break at the hips (anterior pelvic tilt) when they run are going to be prone to hamstring problems. This problem affects hamstring length since the hamstring is attached to the hip and if the hip is anteriorly tilted or rolled forward, the hamstring is going to be in a lengthened position."

Sports!
PHYSIOTHERAPY ADVICE HIP, PELVIS AND GROIN INJURIES IN ATHLETES by Phil Sadler BSc (Hons), MCSP, LCSP (phys), ST Dip
"for example in long jumping if you take off unbalanced with the leg straight and back extended. This can result massive forces going through the SIJ causing joint bruising or ligament damage. This can cause pain in the lower back on one side, or pain into the buttocks and thigh. Sometimes the SIJ can “upslip”. Injury to this area requires physiotherapy assessment and normally manipulation to correct the problem."

Malalignment syndrome by Dr Wolf Schamberg
"Malalignment of the pelvis, spine and extremities remains one of the frontiers in medicine, unrecognized as the cause of over 50% of back, neck and limb pain"
"A common mistake is to provide orthotics to correct leg and foot injury's and pain."

PostureBalance by
"A misaligned pelvis may cause the connective or muscular tissues to pull or spasm making it difficult for the baby to descend properly. When the pelvic bones and sacroiliac are restored to the correct alignment, the connective tissues tensions, muscles lengths and functions return to normal, thus delivery is much easier and safer."
And what it can cause!!

Sports!
City Sports & Physiotherapy Clinics
"Most commonly, if you have a rotated pelvis, the right leg will look long."

Structural Medicine by Dr. Kalei N. Campbell, D.C
"sacroiliac joint misalignment (which causes short and long legs conditions). Additionally, other joints of the body may become misaligned and may require adjustment.

Misalignment of Joints Causes Pain by Dr. Julian Whitaker
"Once the sacroiliac is back in normal position. the entire spine will eventually realign itself and pressure on sensitive tissues will diminish."

Pelvic Pain in Pregnancy by MomSquawk
"Problem is, if the ligaments get too loose, the parts of the pelvis can get out of alignment, and that can cause some women significant pain. (You have perhaps heard PGP referred to as symphysis pubis dysfunction, or SPD. PGP is the name being used more frequently now because any of the three joints can become out of whack during pregnancy, not just the front joint."

Manipulation Is Good Medicine by John McPartland, D.O., an osteopathic physician in private practice in Middlebury, Vermont
"And if the pelvic bones are out of alignment, that puts pressure on the ligaments, which puts pressure on the uterus."

Fall off Horse on Hip still sore 3 weeks later?
"Your piriformis muscle is in spasm and that is pinching on your sciatic nerve. There is a good chance that your SI (sacroiliac) joint is out of alignment which is causing the muscle spasm."

patient story by Dr. Tacke
"With Bobi Jo specifically, we know that whenever her SI joint is out of alignment, then that's a very direct trigger or stimulus for an increased level of inflammation. "
"The laxity in her sacroiliac joint basically allows that joint to become misaligned quite easily; and each time that occurs, the initial response her body has is that physiological response to increase inflammation. The primary way of trying to reduce that for her is trying to keep that joint from dislocating; and when it has dislocated, trying to get it relocated as soon as possible. "

My opinion

They are all THE same problem but with different name:
SIJ/ilium Upslip - Pelvis malalignment - SIJ subluxation/malposition - SIJ syndrome/dysfunction - locked/blocked SIJ
The problem is the same, but of course not all patients have the same kind of a problem with it.

My estimations: 99,9% of medical doctors say it does NOT EXISTS! Only 2% of medical experts agree it exists! And from those 2% who claim they "know" it, only about 5% understands what it really is! And from those 5% of experts only few knows how to correct it well. Others just try to correct it or treat it. That is my opinion after going through of the online material of this subject including PubMed, ChiroWeb, PT journal, etc.

Sometimes upslip is so small that it is considered as locked/blocked SIJ. Upslip is so small. Only movement is restricted but no pain in SIJ nor malalignment of pelvis is observed. This is the most common case. No provocation test nor flexion test detects it.

Sometimes upslip is easy to observe whit Stork or (seated/standing) flexion tests, but only when upslip is big displacement. Small ones are easily misdiagnosed.

Worst case: Don't follow the symptoms! Some experts try to find it with provocation tests or by looking for pain. They think "something" causes the pain to SIJ and pain can radiate to other places. Those experts should be sent back to school!

Some palpate patients ASIS/PSIS landmarks when patient is standing. That is so wrong way to look for it.

Sometimes both SIJs are in malposition, but misdiagnosed even by the best experts. Chiropractors claim they know the problem well, but they only open the lock/block, they don't "manipulate" the ilium/SIJ back to it's correct position.

Other stuff

DonTignys's SIJD-Foorum. There are thousands of messages from patients loking for information: Sacroiliac Foorum Thousands of messages from hundreds of different SIJD-patients around the world"

Joseph L. Shaw M.D. Back and Neck Care Center, Topeka, Kansas, USA.
This Article that 98% of Low Back Pain patients had SIJD.

DonTigny's self help instructions

Mark Hellner's self help instructions, Sacroiliac Joint Correction, By Marc Heller, DC; Dynamic Chiropractic, December 17, 2005, Volume 23, Issue 26

Healing Researh Center -Excellent link!
"The most common subluxation occurs when one ilium moves upward or downward."
This is a great site!

This article also from DonTigny's Kalindra-site:
DeRosa C 2001 Functional anatomy of the lumbar spine and sacroiliac joint.
In: Proceedings from the 4th – Montreal proceedings Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back & Pelvic Pain. Montreal, Canada

Richard DonTigny, PT, Critical analysis of the sequence and extent of the result of the pathological release of self-bracing of the sacroiliac joint
"Here is the mind blower. In 1982 the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons met in Toronto specifically to address LBP. They established criteria for testing and for the interpretation of those tests. They assumed that the SIJ (= Si-nivel) was so strong as to be immune to injury through minor trauma and paid scant attention to it. They also reported that 'in spite of thorough examination they could establish a firm diagnosis less than 15% of the time.

What they did not seem to realize is that when you use their recommended tests and interpret those test in the recommended manner that you will be compelled to miss the diagnosis over 85% of the time! It's not that they are not an intelligent group, but they just have not considered all of the evidence. Boorstin once commented that "The chief obstacle to discovery is the illusion of knowledge." People are reluctant to learn what they think they already know. This is willful ignorance. Instruction is of scant value. You must instill some doubt to stimulate investigation."

Yumeiho-manual therapy
Here is some excellent material. Hopefully soon there will be more...
"The theory of the YUMEIHO method is grounded on the fact, that over 95% of people have had incorrectly positioned pelvis since their birth."
(Heidän teoriansa mukaan virheet tulivat syntymäprosessissa ja ne johtuvat äidin lantion alueen virheasennoista, eli lähinnä Si-nivelen dislokaatiosta. Kun odottavan äidin lantion virhetilat korjattiin, niin syntyneistä lapsista 98% oli virheettömiä.)

Baby Malpositions: Implications for Birth, by Kmom
"When the pelvis and sacro-iliac area are put into better alignment and the soft tissues released, the baby can resume its most optimal position and usually turns. However, if the pubic bone misalignment continues, the woman is at risk not only for baby malposition, but also significant and debilitating pubic symphysis damage during birth from common obstetric interventions and positions."

Maya Abdominal Massage
"When the pelvis is misaligned it can also affect the position that the baby will find it comfortable to lie in during pregnancy."

ABC Physical Therapy
"We believe that the sacroiliac joint is the number one cause of low back pain, and that it is the most significant joint in the entire body. Held together by strong ligaments, the sacroiliac joint connects the upper half of our body to the lower half. Tremendous forces are generated through this joint when we stand, stoop, and lift. During a low back injury the sacroiliac joint gets “dislocated” ('goes out') or misaligned. Tremendous, often excruciating pain is created when these ligaments are sprained or torn. This can happen through lifting, falling onto your buttocks, when you suffer an auto accident, or even during sustained bouts of sitting or driving. When you say, "my back went out", what has really happened is that your sacroiliac joint is out of alignment."

ABC Physical Therapy
"During my 11 years working as a physical therapist, I have found that the sacroiliac joint is involved or "out of alignment" in nearly every patient that has been referred or presented to me with the complaint of low back pain. "

"Sacroiliac joint dysfunction or sprain is rarely given as a diagnosis and not considered as a relevant cause of low back pain. As a physical therapist, current thought believes that only about 10-15% of patients suffering from low back pain will have a component that involves the sacroiliac joint complex. MD’s, Radiologists, Orthopedist and Neurosurgeons rarely consider the sacroiliac joint complex a factor, either. Some surgeons believe this joint doesn’t even move."

ABC Physical Therapy
Stuff about history of SIJD.

UltraFitness, by DR. Ironside
"The sacrum and the ilium form the sacroiliac joint. If this joint is stuck or misaligned, it will not be able to move in its normal pattern. This will create pull on the muscles that act around it. Some muscles will compensate by becoming overactive. For example the piriformis will start to contract or be overworked trying to help the joint. This will be felt as a pain in the hip or butt. The piriformis muscle is not alone in compensating for lack of movement of the sacroiliac joint. Any of the muscles that attach through the pelvis can be affected"

Firstchoise Healthcare Lisa Mancuso, M.D., Hugh S Thompson, M.D, George A. Bitting, M.D.
"The sacroiliac joint is a commonly overlooked cause of lower back pain. Recent studies have found that Sacroiliac dysfunction was the cause, or a major component, in a high percentage the cases of mechanical back pain. Dysfunction in the sacroiliac joint not only causes back pain but also may mimic pain seen in lumbar disc herniation or a facet joint with pain referred into the buttock and thigh."

Protonics
"Many patients who experience chronic knee pain, back pain, hip bursitis, sciatica and similar postural problems, suffer from a pelvic instability. Since the pelvis is in a unique position to contribute to the position and function of numerous parts of the body, especially the spine and the femur, an anterior tilt of the pelvis has undesirable consequences throughout the entire lumbo-pelvic-femoral chain.
When the pelvis is anteriorly rotated, the sacrum is tipped forward and the rest of the spine has no choice but to follow suit. Rather than fall over forward, the body compensates for this excessive forward tilting of the lower spine by tilting backward at some point higher up the chain and thereby creates a large increase in the amount of curvature of the lower back (lordosis and scoliosis). This deep curvature of the back can create various problems including muscle spasms, pinched nerves (sciatica) and possible damage to the intervertebral discs."

Postural Restoration Institute
"The left pelvis is anteriorly tipped and forwardly rotated. This directional, rotational influence on the low back and spine to the right, mandates compulsive compensatory movement in one or more areas of the trunk, upper extremities and cervical-cranial-mandibular muscle. The greatest impact is on rib alignment and position, therefore influencing breathing patterns and ability. It is very possible that respiratory dysfunctions, associated for example with asthma or daily, occupational, repetitive, work positions, can also influence pelvic balance and lead to a compensatory pattern of an anteriorly tipped and forwardly rotated pelvis on the left."

Medical Library (John P. Fulkerson, M.D. and Elizabeth A. Arendt, M.D. )
""Miserable malalignment" syndrome can also include an anteriorly rotated pelvis, which is associated with a compensatory internal rotation of the femur.7,8 Internal femoral rotation produces dynamic valgus knee alignment and alters the motor/muscle activity of the limb by increasing the demand on the vastus lateralis and iliotibial band. These muscle groups, now more anteriorly aligned on the malrotated limb, act as the primary extensors of the knee. This pelvifemoral dysfunction can also be associated with further compensatory alterations up the kinetic chain with an increase in lumbar lordosis, an increased in thoracic kyphosis, cervical extension and a forward head."

Peak Running free issue, Chris Maund, B.S., sivu 7

Bowen Therapy
"The first thing to consider is the possibility that the legs are not the same length, in which case the pelvis may have twisted to accommodate the condition, and the patient may have had their shoes built up to correct the unbalance."

Sports Injury Clinic - John Williams, registered Osteopath and Sports Injury Therapist
"These joints can often get stuck or in some cases one half of the pelvis can glide forwards or backwards, which is often referred to as a twisted pelvis. When this occurs it often irritates the Iliolumbar ligament which results in Inflammation."

Pelvic mechanics
"It is this writer's clinical observation over 20 years that a characteristic of low back pain associated with a dysfunction of the pelvic ring is its asymmetry. - As the piriformis muscle plays a major role in stabilizing the pelvis and is an important muscle traversing the SIJ, it is not surprising that it is strained at times when the pelvis is dysfunctional."

Vladimir Djuric, M.D. Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction
"Although sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SIJD) may be present in as many as 40% of individuals who experience back, buttock, and leg pain, it is frequently overlooked as a cause of these common symptoms."

Interventional Techniques in The Management of Chronic Spinal Pain: Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines
"The sacroiliac joint is accepted as a potential source of low back and/or buttock pain with or without lower extremity pain (222-233)."

Greg Spindler, LMT
"So why is the sacrum tipped to one side? 9 times out of 10, the illiums aren’t functioning in the same plane or are not balanced. One side (usually the left) is rotated forward and then the other side is rotated back. This creates the unstable pelvic condition while under weight-bearing stress. As a result, the sacrum is off-center and tipped which initiates a direction for the scoliotic compensation (the curvature) to begin."

Robert Schleip, Published in ROLF LINES, May 1996
"the practitioner discovers a pelvic torsion in the client. After successfully unwinding it (with usually either direct or indirect technique) the pelvis does indeed look more balanced on the table. But when the client stands up, the trunk and spine are now suddenly less good balanced than before; sometimes an underlying scoliotic pattern becomes more apparent. A pelvic torsion is usually defined as an intersegmental pelvic pattern in which one ilium is tilted more anterior in relation to the other. Another way to say it is that one ilium is tilted more anterior and one more posterior in comparison with each other."

Jeffrey Burch, Published in Massage Therapy Journal, Summer 2002
"We will also consider sagital plane variation in pelvic orientation. Rotation around the hip joints in the sagital plane yields anterior and posterior tilt of the pelvis. We name the top of the pelvis sitting forward or anterior of the bottom of the pelvis as "anterior tilt". Similarly, the top of the pelvis sitting back of, or posterior to the bottom of the pelvis is "posterior tilt."

Lumbosacral Spine
"Pelvic rotation determines the amount of curve in the spine (Fig. 3-2). Anterior rotation of the pelvis creates an increase in the lumbar curve, and all other curves are increased to keep the body in gravitational balance. Posterior rotation of the pelvis creates a flattening of the lumbar curve and a decrease of the thoracic and cervical curves. As is discussed in this chapter, many muscular factors contribute to the amount of pelvic rotation."

The Diagnosis And Treatment Of The Sacro-Iliac Joint As A Cause Of Low Back Pain — The Management Of Pain In The Butt Arnold Graham Smith, M.D., F.R.C.S, April, 1999
"There is very little written about the Sacro-Iliac joint (S.I.) in medical books on backache. As Orthopaedic and Neurosurgical residents are not taught to consider S.I. dysfunction as a cause of back pain, it is not surprising that surgeons know little of diagnosis and treatment. "

Back Pain and Sacroiliac Joint Syndrome Michael Guthrie
"It is a typical complaint in our field of therapy: “My back hurts all the time.” While sources of back pain are numerous, SIJS is a major source of hip & back pain that is difficult for physicians to diagnose and treat."

Therese Southworth, PT, Physical Therapy for Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction, page 22
"SI sprains or malalignment can lead to joint mobility and stability problems, a condition referred to as SI dysfunction."
"Researchers theorize that pain associated with the SI is the result of the bone on one side of the joint sliding out of position, thereby forcing the muscles and ligaments that keep the bones aligned to overcompensate, which in turn causes pain. The longer a malalignment exists, the more likely muscles are to spasm and tissue damage to occur. In some cases, the pain associated with malalignment can travel beyond the area of the SI joint into the lower back or leg."

Wolf Schamberger, M.D., FRCP(C); Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine Specialist, Medical Director, Burnaby Healthy Heart Program
"-rotational malalignment of the pelvis (Fig. 1) - resulting from excessive anterior or posterior rotation of an innominate (pelvic bone) relative to the sacrum; "anterior" and "posterior" refer to the direction of movement of the upper part of the innominate in the sagittal plane -an upslip of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) (Fig. 2) - referring to a direct upward movement of an innominate relative to the sacrum, with shortening of the leg noted in sitting/lying "

JOHN T. COTTINGHAM, STEPHEN W. PORGES, KENT RICHMOND
"Standing pelvic tilt is defined as the angle of inclination made by the line between the ASIS and the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) and its intersection with the horizontal plane"

Joseph D. Kurnik, DC, Dynamic Chiropractic, September 1, 2003, Volume 21, Issue 18
"More specifically, the ilium can rotate anteriorly, superiorly, posteriorly or inferiorly. The posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) is the point of reference for such motion."

Applied Biomechanics
"if the pelvis becomes distorted, due to a fall or postural stress, the “foundation” of the spine can become tilted. The spine has to compensate, in order for the upper body to be carried upright. Clearly, some of the lumbar muscles have to do extra work, and some of the joints have to take extra loading. The result is extra wear & tear. Sooner or later something has to give. Although an attack of back pain may occur suddenly, for no apparent reason, usually there have been minor niggles or aches for some time."

Wolf Schamberger, M.D.
"Patients presenting for cardiac rehabilitation are no different from the general population in that 80 to 85% are out of alignment."

BackChamp
"The pelvis is the foundation of your spine and skeletal frame. It is notoriously unstable and prone to tilting or twisting so that it no longer sits in its natural, healthy and horizontal position. In fact the whole body is thrown out of kilter and one leg becomes longer than the other. "

MyoRehab
"The pelvis is the foundation of the spine, that is, the base upon which the spine rests. This base for the spine can affect the rest of your torso all the way up to the head. It also plays an important role as an anchor for many muscles of the lower limbs. When the pelvis becomes dysfunctional, besides causing low back and hip pain, it can cause pain and dysfunction of your shoulders, neck and head."

Are You Misdiagnosing Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction? by Michael R. Moore, M.D., Women's Health Magazine, Orthopedic Edition, June-July 1999
"The patient had been told that her pain pattern was "hysterical," that no organic pathology could explain her symptoms, and that the pain was "in her head." She had been referred for psychiatric evaluation and had been through a chronic pain program. She had been accused of "doctor shopping" and drug-seeking behavior. "

MyoRehab
"When your hips or more specifically your pelvis is out of level, everything that rests upon it will be out of alignment. This is frequently the case for people with chronic neck and shoulder pain who receive treatment that gives only temporary relief. One possible explanation for this is that misalignment of the pelvis has been overlooked or insufficiently treated."

Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction in Athletes, P. Gunnar Brolinson, DO, FAOASM, FAAFP, Albert J. Kozar, DO, and and Greg Cibor, DO
"The sacroiliac (SI) joint is a common source of low back pain in the general population. Because it is the link between the lower extremities and the spine, it sustains even higher loads during athletic activity, predisposing athletes to a greater probability of joint dysfunction and pain. "

Kim Christensen, DC, DACRB, CCSP, CSCS, Dynamic Chiropractic, November 3, 2003, Volume 21, Issue 23
"The role of the sacroiliac (SI) joint holds a sometimes confusing, perhaps even controversial place in the health care literature. A dysfunctional SI joint is often ignored or dismissed as an insignificant feature of musculoskeletal health. However, SI subluxation is a legitimate syndrome, separate from the type of low back pain associated with disc conditions, lumbago, or sciatica. In fact, SI joint dysfunction has been implicated as a common cause of back pain in more than 30 percent of children. Additionally, as the link between the spine and the lower extremities, the SI joint "sustains even higher loads during athletic activity, predisposing athletes to a greater probability of joint dysfunction and pain."

The SI joint also can give rise to buttock and leg pain, which is often difficult to differentiate from other causes of low back pain. Furthermore, dysfunction of the SI joint may be a contributing factor in failed back surgery syndrome."

Peter Fysh, DC, Dynamic Chiropractic, June 5, 1995, Volume 13, Issue 12
"Because sacroiliac joint subluxation is frequently accompanied by a physiological short leg, frequent falls by a young infant while walking or running should be an indication for the child's chiropractor to evaluate the position, alignment and length of the lower extremities"

Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction
Anatomiaa, oireita, diagnooseja ja ohjeita.

PubMed: Mierau DR, Cassidy JD, Hamin T, Milne RA., Sacroiliac joint dysfunction and low back pain in school aged children, 1984
"In this study, we found a high percentage of school aged children had sacroiliac dysfunction and low-back pain."

PubMed: Sacroiliac subluxation: a common, treatable cause of low-back pain in pregnancy, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, New York.
"Back pain was spontaneously reported to the physician by 23 women in 23 pregnancies. Eleven of the 23 women met diagnostic criteria for sacroiliac subluxation."

Martha A. Simpson, D.O., M.B.A., TWO TYPES OF SHORT-LEG SYNDROME REQUIRE DIFFERENT TREATMENTS, Family Medicine
"While the legs -- when measured from fixed points -- are the same length, one leg may appear shorter when the patient is evaluated in a laying or sitting position. This is usually caused by a tilt in the pelvic bone, or a hip or sacroiliac joint."

Marc Heller, DC, Dynamic Chiropractic, March 10, 2003, Volume 21, Issue 06
Juttua ja kuvia SI-virheen korjaamisesta.

Kim D. Christensen, D.C., D.A.C.R.B., C.C.S.P., Rehab and the Sacroiliac Joint
"SI joint dysfunction has been implicated as a common cause of back pain in more than 30% of children. 3 Additionally, a study involving the correction of SI joint dysfunction in patients presenting to a chiropractic center over one day found an incidence of 57% for SI joint dysfunction."

Independence Back Institute
"Treatment for the sacroiliac joint problems can be very effective. The first line of treatment following an accurate diagnosis is usually made through an attempt to put the joint back, as it belongs. This can be done by a physician, but is often done by a physical therapist. Stretching and maneuvering the patient can also reposition the joint. "

Physical Therapy, Volume 79, Nro 12, December 1999.
"The results of this study indicate that a procedure using handheld calipers and an inclinometer does not provide reliable measurements of the difference in the angles of inclination of the innominates in people suspected of having SIJ dysfunction. Sacroiliac joint symmetry tests do not appear to be useful for detecting whether one innominate is rotated relative to the other innominate. Therapists should reconsider the usefulness of evaluation techniques that rely on the assessment of the anatomical symmetry of bony landmarks of the innominates."

Moore Orthopadeic Clinic
"What is sacroiliac dysfunction?
Sacroiliac dysfunction means that one of both of the sacroiliac joints move improperly. They may be too stiff, allowing no movement, or too lax, allowing too much movement. Improper mechanics leads to increased stress through the joints. Inflammation and pain are the result. This is also known as sacroilitis.

What are the conditions that cause pain in this Si-joint area?
Spondylolisthesis – Anterior slipping of one vertebrae on another.
Spondylolysis – Stress fracture of the spine.
Sciatica – Herniated disc causing nerve compression.
Inflammatory Arthritis – Such as ankylosing spondylitis.
Infection"

SI Dysfunction.com
"SI joint dysfunction may be wholly responsible for the low back pain syndrome and/or may be contributory to low back pain in concert with other pathology of the lumbar spine."

Hughston Health
"the sacroiliac (SI) joint (Fig. above and below) is a common but frequently overlooked source of low back pain. "

Spinal Universe
"Degenerative arthritis (e.g. osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis) and injury are two common causes of SI joint dysfunction and pain."

The Voice, Florida Newspaper
"SI joint dysfunction itself may be responsible for the low back pain syndrome and/or may be contributory to low back pain along with pathology from the lumbar spine. It can be acute in occurrence or chronic and recurrent. The sacroiliac joint is a risk of injury (as is the lumbar spine) when the trunk is flexed forward coupled with side bending and rotation. This results in non-neutral SI and lower lumbar mechanics."

The Alexander Barrie System of Pelvic Studies
"When pelvic correction was performed, leg length equalised, tension in the spine eased and elsewhere. The pelvis is the foundation of the skeletal frame so that when subluxation/dysfunction occurs (so very common) an immense strain is placed on the spinal segments especially lumbar."

The Ongley Back, Neck and Joint Pain Center
"The sacroiliac joint has a small range of motion, and when the joint is at the limit of its range no great force is needed to damage its ligaments. Once the ligaments of the low back and pelvis become incompetent, instability results."

Cibulka, Michael T. MHS/PT, OCS ; Sinacore, David R. PhD, PT; Cromer, Gregory S. MS, PT ; Delitto, Anthony PhD, PT, Unilateral Hip Rotation Range of Motion Asymmetry in Patients With Sacroiliac Joint Regional Pain, 1998
"Clinicians should consider evaluating for unilateral asymmetry in range of motion in the hip in patients with low back pain. The presence of such asymmetry in patients with low back pain may help identify those with sacroiliac joint dysfunction."

Capitol Spine & Pain Centers, Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction: A Frequent Source of Back Pain
"Up to 40% of low back pain is related to injuries of the SI joint and it's supporting ligament structures. Frequently, SI joint dysfunction co-exists with lumbar disc herniations and lumbar facet syndrome."

Tom LeBlanc, PT
"An ilium can be shifted upward when the back muscles pull against it. This can happen while you’re bending, twisting and lifting. If you bend forward, rotate to your right, then lift a heavy object, the left ilium bone could shift upward, giving you a painful upslip on the left side."

Team Clinic - Sports Medicine
"While it is not clear how the pain is caused, it is thought that an alteration in the normal joint motion may be the culprit that causes sacroiliac joint pain."

The effectivines of SI-joint mobilization

Active Ortho, Greg Specht, PT, OCS, ATC, CSCS; President and CEO, Specht Orthopedic, Inc.

Impairment-Based Examination and Disability Management of an Elderly Woman With Sacroiliac Region Pain, Joseph J Godges, Denisa R Varnum, Kelly M Sanders

Children - Lapsilla:

Mierau DR, Cassidy JD, Hamin T, Milne RA., Sacroiliac joint dysfunction and low back pain in school aged children., Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1984 Jun;7(2):81-4.
"Back pain is known to be very common in adults, but the prevalence in children is unknown. Furthermore, the prevalence of sacroiliac dysfunction, and its relationship to back pain has not been previously studied. In this study, we found a high percentage of school aged children had sacroiliac dysfunction and low-back pain."

Peter Fysh, DC, Dynamic Chiropractic, February 11, 1994, Volume 12, Issue 04
Spinal Problems in Young Children, Part I: 0-2 Years
Myös Atlas!

Peter Fysh, DC, Dynamic Chiropractic, April 8, 1994, Volume 12, Issue 08
Spinal Problems in Young Children, Part II: 3-10 Years

Peter Fysh, DC, Dynamic Chiropractic, January 16, 1995, Volume 13, Issue 02
Spinal Subluxations in Children

Chiropractic for children
Useita artikkeleja

Duke Orthopaedics
"31-40 The cases of seventeen children whose ages ranged from two to eighteen years and who were treated for a disorder of a sacro-iliac joint between 1975 and 1983 were reviewed retrospectively."

M. Drnach, M. Janovich, K. Capdeville, S. Gehring, Physical Therapy, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV., THE PREVALENCE OF PELVIC ASYMMETRY AND SACROILIAC JOINT DYSFUNCTION IN CHILDREN., 2004
"Fifty-three children were recruited from two private schools. Six out of 53 subjects (11.3%) exhibited pelvic asymmetry."

The Journal of Pediatrics
"Studies on healthy children revealed pelvicsubluxations in 40% of all school children, cervical fixation in 15.8%. After manipulative treatrnents,the problems rarely recurred"

Pregnant women - Raskaana olevat naiset

childbirth educator and freelance writer
"-One of the most interesting side-effects of a misalignment of the pelvic bones is that anecdotally, it often seems associated with malpositions of the baby" "-There is little scientific data to show that pelvic misalignment is associated with malpositions because traditional medicine does not recognize misalignment as a problem or research it, nor do they take the idea of "pelvic misalignment" seriously." "-Dr. Showalter expressed great dismay. She was also upset at how many women are told that this pain is normal to pregnancy, and that the only fix is to take some Tylenol and wait for birth. She felt that treatment was very important, and reinforced that back or pelvic misalignment can increase the chances for malposition of the baby."

Dr. Robert White
"Infant spines should be checked shortly after birth due to the twisting, pulling, and tugging that does on during the labor process. Their spines are extremely vulnerable and misalignment can result in such problems as colic, re-occurring ear infections, and later hyperactivity."

PuBMed "After manipulative therapy, 10 of the 11 women (91%) had relief of pain and no longer exhibited signs of sacroiliac subluxation."

PuBMed "Of 862 women who answered the questionnaires, about half developed some degree of low back pain. Seventy-nine women who were unable to continue their work because of severe low back pain were referred to an orthopedic surgeon for an orthoneurologic examination. The most common reason for severe low back pain was dysfunction of the sacroiliac joints."

Victoria C. Arcadi, DC, Sherman Oaks, California
"Low back pain was caused in 78 percent of the women by sacroiliac dysfunction, resulting from the sacroiliac fixation test also know as Piedallu's sign. The patient is examined and one posterior superior spine is lower than the other. "

Dr. Cheryl McFarland, 2004 "Scientific research shows that SI joint dysfunction is the primary cause of pregnancy-related back pain. According to scientific studies, roughly one half of all pregnant women suffer from low back pain."

International Chiropractic Pediatric Association
"The most common reason for severe low back pain was dysfunction of the sacroiliac joints. Physically strenuous work and previous low back pain were factors associated with an increased risk of developing low back pain and sacroiliac dysfunction during pregnancy. "

St. Petersburg Times
"Scientific research shows that SI joint dysfunction is the primary cause of pregnancy-related back pain."

Spine Health
"The most common cause of back pain in pregnancy is malfunction in the sacroiliac joint."

Kenneth D. Erickson, D.C. Irvine Family Health Center Chiropractic Offices
"The most common cause of low back pain during pregnancy is a condition known as “sacroiliac joint dysfunction” or “sacroiliac subluxation”. Subluxation is a Latin term meaning “partial dislocation”."

Journal of the American Chiropractic Assosiation
"More than 50 percent of pregnant women complain of low-back pain during pregnancy, with 75 to 85 percent presenting with sacroiliac pain syndrome. Compared with lumbar pain, sacroiliac pain is four times more likely to persist several months after delivery."

American Family Phycician
"WLL told his newly discovered knowledge concerning sacroiliac subluxation, and the patient agreed to treatment with gentle low-back manipulation. Both the patient and JRH watched with interest as WLL performed the manipulation. After the treatment, 80 to 85 percent of her discomfort was relieved. We would like to dedicate this column to our colleague in New York who opened our years to this condition and its treatment."

CNY Health, Don Janowski, M.A.D.C.
"One of the most common complaints, nearly 85 percent of the time by pregnant patients, is pain in the hip region of the back on either or both sides just above the buttocks. In this region, on both sides lies a joint referred to as the sacroiliac joint. This joint, normally quite stable, becomes significantly relaxed. An increased mobility in these joints can allow it to become subluxated. As with most joints in the body, these joints are pain-sensitive. A misalignment triggers nerve endings in the area and sends a signal to your brain, which often manifests in achy pain in and around the area."

Vancouver Birth Lounge
"When the pelvis is misaligned it may reduce the amount of room available for the developing baby. A misaligned pelvis may also make it difficult for the baby to get into the best possible position for delivery."

Prenatal Chiropractic for Safer and Easier Pregnancies and Deliveries, Dr. Stephanie Bonn BSc,BPHE,DC,FICPA
"A woman’s pelvis supports her growing uterus throughout pregnancy. When the pelvis is balanced the uterus is able to enlarge symmetrically with the baby. An unbalanced/misaligned pelvis will directly affect the way the uterus is supported. Subtle imbalances in the spine and pelvis are due to a range of physical, chemical and mental stresses. This imbalance may torque the uterus which reduces the amount of room for the developing baby and may cause intrauterine constraint."

Kenneth D. Erickson, D.C.
"The most common cause of low back pain during pregnancy is a condition known as “sacroiliac joint dysfunction” or “sacroiliac subluxation”. Subluxation is a Latin term meaning “partial dislocation”. "

Hevosilla

ORSHINA - The Israeli Veterinary Institute for Holistic Medicine
"Vertebral disorders and injuries of the sacroiliac joint have been identified as substantial causes of chronic poor performance in horses."

Synonyymejä SIJD:lle

Docs
http://www.spineuniverse.com/1p/rauschning/1lumbospine/lumb15.html http://www.hsedu.com/ResidencyReading/ManualTherapyReviewLumboSacralPart3.pdf http://www.akademie-fuer-handrehabilitation.de/downloads/dassacroiliacalegelenkteil2.pdf http://www.osteopathie-france.net/Professionnels/Bassin/Testssacro-iliaques.pdf Leg length discrepancy/unequality - Jalkojen erimittaisuus

PubMed: Krawiec CJ, Denegar CR, Hertel J, Salvaterra GF, Buckley WE., Static innominate asymmetry and leg length discrepancy in asymptomatic collegiate athletes, 2003
"Results showed that forty-two subjects (95%) demonstrated some degree of static innominate asymmetry. In 32 subjects (73%), the right innominate was more anteriorly rotated than the left. Nearly all subjects were determined to have unequal leg lengths with a majority, 30 subjects (68%), showing a slightly longer left leg."

Healthyroads
"True LLI (Leg length inequality) is uncommon and is due to physical length inequality found along the bone of the upper leg (femur), lower leg (tibia), or a combination of both."

UpCSpine.com - Pictures!

Keith Innes, DC, Leg Length Discrepancy, Its Causes, and Its Importance, Dynamic Chiropractic, October 7, 1996, Volume 14, Issue 21
"The sacroiliac joint dysfunctions along its right or left oblique axis."

E. Suter, Ph.D., G. McMorland, D.C., W. Herzog, Ph.D. and R. Bray, M.D., Effects of Sacroiliac Joint Manipulation on Quadriceps Inhibition in Patients with Anterior Knee Pain: A Randomized Control Trial, University of Calgary, Canada
"Chiropractors have long observed that anterior knee pain is associated with sacroiliac dysfunction. (i.e. the low back may or may not be painful). The present study demonstrated that manipulation of these pelvic joints corrects the knee pain.
Twenty-eight subjects were studied. Five had had knee surgery and seventeen had received other treatments such as strengthening exercise or electrotherapy without success. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups – fourteen to a control group which only received a lower back functional assessment and fourteen to a treatment group receiving spinal manipulation to the sacroiliac joints. All patients had sacroiliac joint dysfunction (pelvic joints not moving properly). In the treatment group the knee pain resolved, in the control group there was no significant change. This research was funded by the University of Calgary, the Canadian Chiropractic Association, the College of Chiropractors of Alberta and the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College."

Suter E, McMorland G, Herzog W, Bray R., Decrease in quadriceps inhibition after sacroiliac joint manipulation in patients with anterior knee pain, J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1999 Mar-Apr;22(3):149-53.
"Spinal manipulation might offer an interesting alternative treatment for patients with anterior knee pain and muscle inhibition. Because this clinical outcome study was of descriptive nature rather than a controlled design, biases might have occurred. Thus the results have to be verified in a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial before firm conclusions can be drawn or recommendations can be made."

Suter E, McMorland G, Herzog W, Bray R., Conservative lower back treatment reduces inhibition in knee-extensor muscles: a randomized controlled trial., J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2000 Feb;23(2):76-80.
"The results of this study suggest that SI-joint manipulation reduces knee-extensor MI. Spinal manipulation may possibly be an effective treatment of MI in the lower limb musculature."

Ristiluu

ChiroWeb
"A frequently neglected subluxation component in the pediatric population is the sacral subluxation."

SMT-Dorn
"SUBLUXATION OF THE SACRUM AND ITS CONSEQUENCES LIKE FOR EXAMPLE HIP-JOINT DISEASES, SCIATICA, INCONTINENCE OF MAN AND WOMAN, DISTURBANCE OF BLOOD-CIRCULATION OF LEGS, RISE OF VARICOSIS WITH VENOUS STASIS, VARICOSE ULCER, SYSTREMMA, INGUINODYNIA AND IMPOTENCE."

Subluxations - Subluksaatioista:

SUBLUKSAATIOT, mitä ne ovat?, Lowey Chiropractic Health Center
"A simple definition of the subluxation is a condition in which two adjacent vertebrae have become fixated or restricted in motion, or a misalignment in the vertebrae. This can cause compression or irritation to the spinal nerve creating interference of normal nerve signals in the nervous system. This results in a loss of our normal, healthy balance and ultimately lowers resistance leading to illness."

Shirley Chiropractic -Loistava linkki! Katso slidet 1-25. Loistavat!

In one study 11 women meeting the criteria for sacroiliac joint dysfunction were treated with chiropractic treatment of the sacroiliac joints. After chiropractic therapy, 10 of the 11 women (91%) had relief of pain and no longer exhibited signs of sacroiliac joint dysfunction. ("Sacroiliac subluxation: a common, treatable cause of low-back pain in pregnancy". Daly JM, et al. Family Practice Research Journal, 1991: 11(2) 149-159.)

In another study 84% of patients receiving chiropractic manipulation reported relief of back pain during pregnancy. There was significantly less likelihood of back labor when spinal manipulative therapy was administered during pregnancy. ("Back pain during pregnancy and labor". Diakow PR, et al. Journal of Manipulative and Physiologic Therapeutics, 1991: 14(2): 116-118.)

In a study of 500 women during labor, 352 experienced pain in the low back during labor, an incidence of 70.4%. Low back pain during was associated with baby presentation. Application of pressure to the low back area during labor reduced the need for major narcotic pain medication and minor tranquilizing medication. ("Effect of pressure…for inhibition of lumbar myalgia during labor". Guthrie RA, Martin RH. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 1982: 82(4): 247-251.)

Hip joint subluxation - Lonkkanivelen subluksaatio

Orteopedinen Osteopaatti Olli Hakanen
"Nykyään yhä useampi ikääntyvä ihminen joutuu sinnittelemään ns. ”lonkkakuluman” kanssa. "

Kuntohoitaja Timo Maaranen
"Myös lonkissa oli jotain vikaa. Sen saa selville muun muassa tunnustelemalla lonkkanivelen kiertoliikettä, mutta vieläkin helpompaa on tarkistaa jalkojen pituus. Jos lantio ja vartalo ovat suorassa ja jalat näyttävät eripituisilta, syynä on yleensä lonkkien virheasento."

PubMed: Zenios M, Sampath J, Cole C, Khan T, Galasko CS., Operative treatment for hip subluxation in spinal muscular atrophy, 2005
"Thirty patients were assessed clinically and radiologically. Of the nine who underwent surgery only one reported satisfaction and four had recurrent subluxation. Of the 21 patients who had no surgery, 18 had subluxation at the latest follow-up, but only one reported pain in the hip. We conclude that surgery for subluxation of the hip in these patients is not justified."

PubMed: Chan KG, Galasko CS, Delaney C., 2001
"The possible relationship between subluxation and pelvic tilt also calls for better control of sitting posture to prevent pelvic tilt. Spinal stabilization should be carried out at an early age when any scoliosis and pelvic tilt are still mild, so that progressive subluxation of the hip may be delayed or prevented, in addition to maintaining sitting balance and comfort."

Merja Soanjärvi, OMT-fysioterapeutti
"Lonkkanivelen dislokaatio, subluksaatio ja labrumvaurio voivat säteillä kipua nivusalueelle. Labrumvaurion syynä voi olla niin pieni vamma, että urheilija ei pidä tapahtumaa vammana. Oireena voi olla nivuskipu, kuultavissa tai palpoitavissa oleva "klikki" ja lievä lonkkanivelen liikerajoitus."

Sean T. Bryan, MD; John M. McShane, MD; Mark E. Schweitzer, MD, THE PHYSICIAN AND SPORTSMEDICINE - VOL 30 - NO. 11 - NOVEMBER 2002
"Posterior hip subluxation is a possible mechanism in the absence of hip dislocation. Our patient's described mechanism likely involved a combination of axial loading and either internal or external rotation acting on her left hip. Simultaneous axial loading and internal rotation with the hip slightly flexed could cause posterior subluxation of the femoral head. In our patient, these forces could have been high enough to cause trabecular injury and possibly a labrum tear, but not high enough to cause cortical disruption or frank dislocation. "

ORTHOPAEDIC DEPARTMENT, THE ALFRED I. DUPONT INSTITUTE, WILMINGTON, DELAWARE
"In addition to pain the dislocated hip may cause difficulties with the individual's sitting ability and perineal hygiene; and it may contribute to the formation of pelvic obliquity, scoliosis, and skin breakdown."

Keith Innes, DC, Leg Length Discrepancy, Its Causes, and Its Importance, Dynamic Chiropractic, October 7, 1996, Volume 14, Issue 21
"Dysfunction of the hip joint itself leading to compensatory alterations by the joint and muscles that impact on the joint."

SMT-Dorn
"A hip subluxation is a fact , which can be diagnosed at nearly every human being, no matter of age or culture. You certainly cannot imagine, that there are such simple things, which are neither known nor realized by classical medicine. It is a pity, but it is an immutable fact, which everytime can be shown and confirmed in practice."

Duke University, news release, July 2003
"Hip subluxation is a partial dislocation of the joint, where the ball at the top of femur moves in and out of the joint without tearing the capsule surrounding the joint. This injury is different than a complete hip dislocation, where the ball on top of the femur pops completely out of the joint."

Claude T. Moorman III, MD, et all, The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 2003
"Traumatic posterior hip subluxation is a potentially devastating injury that is often misdiagnosed as a simple hip sprain or strain."

Joseph P Garry, MD, 2005
"Subluxation of the iliotibial band over the greater trochanter may occur while the hip extends from a flexed position (in which the iliotibial band lies anterior to the greater trochanter) to a position posterior to the greater trochanter. This action is most pronounced with sudden loading of the hip joint into a flexed position, such as occurs when landing a jump (eg, dismounting from an apparatus in gymnastics, rebounding in basketball, long jumping in track-and-field competitions)."

Mar Vista Animal Medical Center
Tämä on koirista, mutta täällä on hyviä kuvia! Taas kerran eläimiä on tutkittu paremmin ku ihmisiä...

Shoulder subluxation - Olkapään subluksaatio

PubMed: Boyd EA, Torrance GM., Clinical measures of shoulder subluxation: their reliability, 1992
"These results demonstrate the difficulty of achieving consistent clinical measurement for a condition like shoulder subluxation."

PubMed: Warren RF., Subluxation of the shoulder in athletes, 1983
"In addition, subluxation may develop initially, then progress to dislocation, or the converse may occur. However, some patients may have subluxation over an extended period of time."

PubMed: Gluck BS, Mendelson DS., Shoulder subluxation as a complication of positioning during CT, 1992
"Previously unreported, we note the complication of anterior shoulder subluxation that occurred secondary to patient positioning during chest CT examination. Positioning a patient's arms abducted and externally rotated over the head can precipitate anterior shoulder subluxation in patients with anterior shoulder instability."

PubMed: Carpenter GI, Millard PH., Shoulder Subluxation in elderly inpatients, 1982
"Examination of the plain chest radiographs of 300 patients consecutively admitted to a department of geriatric medicine revealed that 16 patients had subluxation of the shoulder."

American Family Physician, BRIAN L. MAHAFFEY, M.D., PATRICK A. SMITH, M.D.
"The term "shoulder instability" refers to a spectrum of disorders that includes dislocation, subluxation and laxity. Dislocation is defined as complete loss of the humeral articulation with the glenoid fossa as a result of acute trauma. Subluxation is a partial loss of the articulation to the degree that symptoms are produced. "

PubMed
"We report 30 shoulders in 28 patients with this lesion. Nineteen of these patients had been originally seen by other physicians prior to presenting to us and misdiagnosed."

e-Medicine
"Subluxation versus dislocation: A subluxation occurs when 2 joint (articular) surfaces have lost their usual contact. A 50% subluxation means the normally opposing articular surfaces have lost half their usual contact. A 100% subluxation means the articular surfaces have lost all of their contact. A dislocation is the same as a 100% subluxation."

MARC DARROW, M.D., Shoulder Pain
"Sometimes the bones in the shoulder joint slip out of normal alignment or are forced out by injury, a condition known as subluxation—if partial in nature."

Sport Medicinee Advisor
"Symptoms are pain, weakness, or numbness in your shoulder or arm. "

Chiropractic Works, Theodor H. Saylor, D.C., P.C
"In a nutshell - a subluxation signifies when the skeletal portions of the joint are not in their normal physical position of function (this, many times, is small mm of malposition) - but, they are not dislocated."

American Family Phycisian
"A shoulder subluxation or instability involves a temporary, partial dislocation of the shoulder joint."

Scott Orthopedic Center
"The physical therapy rehabilitation for an anterior shoulder dislocation/subluxation will vary in length depending on factors such as degree of instability, acute versus chronic condition, length of time immobilized, strength and range of motion status, and performance/activity demands."

Dr. David Lintner, M.D
"The physical therapy rehabilitation for an anterior shoulder dislocation/subluxation will vary in length depending on factors such as:"

American Physical Therapy Association
"Although they may not be painful, subluxations may, over time, contribute to problems of wear and tear in the shoulder region."

Nucleus Catalog Medical Reference Library
"A partial dislocation where the upper arm bone is partially in and partially out of the socket is called a subluxation. The shoulder can dislocate either forward, backward, or downward. Not only does the arm appear out of position when the shoulder dislocates, but the dislocation also produces pain. Muscle spasms may increase the intensity of pain. Swelling, numbness, weakness, and bruising are likely to develop."

Hacley Hospital
"It should also be noted that a differential diagnosis be made between a brachial plexus injury vs. a shoulder subluxation/dislocation as these injuries can create a dead arm syndrome where numbness and weakness occur in the absence of a cervical injury."

The Bristol Orthopaedic Sports Injury Clinic
"Subluxation of the shoulder occurs when the joint partially dislocates due to ligamentous stretching. Shoulder subluxation may produce a feeling of looseness and instability of the shoulder, particularly when throwing. Alternatively, pain deep within the shoulder when throwing can occur. "

Medictdirect Sport
"Multi-directional instability or hypermobility of the shoulder may lead to subluxation (partial dislocation of the joint). Players often describe a catching sensation or "dead arm" after throwing, especially on over-arm actions."

Pekka Peltokallio, tyypilliset urheiluvammat
American Family Physician
Harward Medical School
SportsMed
e-Medicine
Muita

PubMed: Atlihan D, Tekdemir I, Ates Y, Elhan A., Anatomy of the anterior sacroiliac joint with reference to lumbosacral nerves., 2000